science environment day...

our best poster....

with friends and lectures

dicussing before presenting...

presenting to Dr Supli....

presenting to mr. shahrizal...

presenting to Dr Nur Tjahjadi...

we win 2nd place for science environment blog poster..

~~10 FactS AbOut PollUtiOn~~


:( Polluted drinking waters are a problem for about half of the world’s population. Each year there are about 250 million cases of water-based diseases, resulting in roughly 5 to 10 million deaths.

:( For every one of the 6 billion people on earth, nearly four tons of carbon dioxide is spewed into the air annually

:( World wide, rainforests are disappearing at a rate of one and a half football fields per second.

:( Americans consume 22% of the worlds oil, even though they make up just 5% of the world's population - as a result the past 100 years has seen heat trapping gases increase by 22%

:( According to the World Health Organization, if you are one of the 18 million residents of Cairo:

- Breathing daily air pollution is like smoking 20 cigarettes a day

-You take in over 20 times the acceptable level of air pollution each day

:( The World Bank reported in 2002 that pollution causes 2.42 billion dollars worth of damage to the Egyptian environment annually - equaling about 5 percent of the country’s annual gross domestic product.

:( The risk of cancer from breathing diesel exhaust is about ten times more than ingesting all other toxic air pollutants combined, with diesel emissions contributing to over 70% of the cancer risk from air pollution in the USA. – reported by Environmental Defense

:( A recent study from Toronto Public Health estimates over 440 deaths a year in the Canadian city can be directly attributed to traffic emissions.

:( Emissions from ocean-going ships contribute to approximately 60,000 deaths each year, mostly from heart and lung-related cancers. Shanghai, Singapore and Hong Kong rank within the world’s top 5 busiest ports, and experience a higher impact from emissions-related health issues

:( Americans generate 30 billion foam cups, 220 million tires, and 1.8 billio disposable diapers every year

SaVe OuR WoRLd.....



SIX ELEMENTS OF Solid Waste Management

:) Generation

:) Storage

:) Collection,

:) Transportation and transfer,

:) Processing and Treatment

:) Disposal

Waste Disposal Method

:) Open Dump

:) Ocean Dumping

:) Landfills

:) Exporting Waste

:) Incineration

Open Dump

Open dumps are areas where wa ste is disposed of without proper controls, including regular application of cover, controlled access to the site, and other environmental controls. Open dumping also a predominant method of waste disposal in developing countries. Illegal dumping classifies as a type of open dumping. Groundwater contamination is one of the many problems with open dumping

Sanitary Landfills

Sanitary landfills are sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically. In high-income countries, the level of isolation achieved may be high. However, such an expensive high level of isolation may not be technically necessary to protect public health. Four basic conditions should be met before a site can be regarded as a sanitary landfill.

  1. Full or partial hydrogeological isolation: if a site cannot be located on land which naturally contains leachate security, additional lining materials should be brought to the site to reduce leakage from the base of the site (leachate) and help reduce contamination of groundwater and surrounding soil. If a liner - soil or synthetic - is provided without a system of leachate collection, all leachate will eventually reach the surrounding environment. Leachate collection and treatment must be stressed as a basic requirement.
  2. Formal engineering preparations: designs should be developed from local geological and hydrogeological investigations. A waste disposal plan and a final restoration plan should also be developed.
  3. Permanent control: trained staff should be based at the landfill to supervise site preparation and construction, the depositing of waste and the regular operation and maintenance.
  4. Planned waste emplacement and covering: waste should be spread in layers and compacted. A small working area which is covered daily helps make the waste less accessible to pests and vermin.

Exporting Waste

-Although most industrialized nations in the world have agreed to stop shipping hazardous and toxic waste to less developed countries, the practice still continues.-

-Within rich nations, poor neighborhoods and minority populations are more likely to be the recipients of Locally Unwanted Land Use (LULUs).--

-Toxic wastes are sometimes “recycled” as building materials, fertilizer or soil amendments.


Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the combustion of organic materials and/or substances. Incineration is burning refuse to reduce disposal volume by 80-90%. Energy recovery is possible through heat derived from incineration. Steam from this process can be used for heating buildings or generating electricity. Mass burn means everything smaller than major furniture and an appliance is loaded into furnace. It results in greater problems with air pollution. Residual ash has toxic components including dioxins. High construction costs and environmental regulations have resulted in closures and waste exportation.

Solid and Waste Management

Waste implies unnecessary depletion of natural resources, unnecessary costs, and environmental damage. Sustainable waste management is about using resources more efficiently.

Issues & Problems

Litter at the roadside, drains clogged up with rubbish and rivers filled with filthy garbage definitely indicate that solid waste is a major environmental problem in Malaysia. Rapid development, population increase and changes in consumption pattern directly (and indirectly) resulted in the generation of enormous amount of waste, ranging from biodegradable to synthetic waste.

As of the year of 2008, 23,000 tones of waste is produced each day in Malaysia, with less than 5% of the waste is being recycled. In Selangor alone, waste generated in 1997 was over 3000t/day and the amount of waste is expected to rise up to 5700t/day in the year 2017(Yachio Engineering, 2000 cited in Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus, 2000). An alarming 19% of waste ends up in our drains, which then causes flash floods and drainage blockage. This situation has been and will be reducing our environmental capacity to sustain life.

Despite the massive amount and complexity of waste produced, the standards of waste management in Malaysia are still poor. These include outdated documentation of waste generation rates and its composition, inefficient storage and collection systems, disposal of municipal wastes with toxic and hazardous waste, indiscriminate disposal or dumping of wastes and inefficient utilization of disposal site space. Apart from a voluntary and unsystematic process of extracting a proportion of recyclable items from the main waste flow, all waste is simply disposed of in landfills. Nor is there a developed culture of waste minimization. Landfill capacity is severely limited and expansion of efficient, sanitary landfills, extremely problematic. Other difficulties relate to existing, short-term contractual arrangements; absence of support for recycling mechanisms at the community level; and limited land availability for transfer stations and landfill sites.

Furthermore, the lack of awareness and knowledge among Malaysian community about solid waste management (SWM) issues, and being ignorant about the effect that improper SWM has to us has definitely worsened the problem.

Types of waste:

Municipal waste (food, rubbish, ashes, construction waste, furniture)

Industrial waste (waste from factories)

Hazardous waste (waste that poses substantial danger such as flammable and explosive)