SIX ELEMENTS OF Solid Waste Management

:) Generation

:) Storage

:) Collection,

:) Transportation and transfer,

:) Processing and Treatment

:) Disposal

Waste Disposal Method

:) Open Dump

:) Ocean Dumping

:) Landfills

:) Exporting Waste

:) Incineration

Open Dump

Open dumps are areas where wa ste is disposed of without proper controls, including regular application of cover, controlled access to the site, and other environmental controls. Open dumping also a predominant method of waste disposal in developing countries. Illegal dumping classifies as a type of open dumping. Groundwater contamination is one of the many problems with open dumping

Sanitary Landfills

Sanitary landfills are sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically. In high-income countries, the level of isolation achieved may be high. However, such an expensive high level of isolation may not be technically necessary to protect public health. Four basic conditions should be met before a site can be regarded as a sanitary landfill.

  1. Full or partial hydrogeological isolation: if a site cannot be located on land which naturally contains leachate security, additional lining materials should be brought to the site to reduce leakage from the base of the site (leachate) and help reduce contamination of groundwater and surrounding soil. If a liner - soil or synthetic - is provided without a system of leachate collection, all leachate will eventually reach the surrounding environment. Leachate collection and treatment must be stressed as a basic requirement.
  2. Formal engineering preparations: designs should be developed from local geological and hydrogeological investigations. A waste disposal plan and a final restoration plan should also be developed.
  3. Permanent control: trained staff should be based at the landfill to supervise site preparation and construction, the depositing of waste and the regular operation and maintenance.
  4. Planned waste emplacement and covering: waste should be spread in layers and compacted. A small working area which is covered daily helps make the waste less accessible to pests and vermin.

Exporting Waste

-Although most industrialized nations in the world have agreed to stop shipping hazardous and toxic waste to less developed countries, the practice still continues.-

-Within rich nations, poor neighborhoods and minority populations are more likely to be the recipients of Locally Unwanted Land Use (LULUs).--

-Toxic wastes are sometimes “recycled” as building materials, fertilizer or soil amendments.


Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the combustion of organic materials and/or substances. Incineration is burning refuse to reduce disposal volume by 80-90%. Energy recovery is possible through heat derived from incineration. Steam from this process can be used for heating buildings or generating electricity. Mass burn means everything smaller than major furniture and an appliance is loaded into furnace. It results in greater problems with air pollution. Residual ash has toxic components including dioxins. High construction costs and environmental regulations have resulted in closures and waste exportation.

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